Passing the Oral Test for the PPL

PPL Oral Test

I have been getting requests from many people looking for advice on what kind of questions come up during the oral test for the PPL. Examiners are required to test a student’s knowledge and for many, this can be the most stressful part of the testing process.

As part of the flight test, the examiner is required to orally test the student. The examiner will ask many questions on many different subjects to find out if the student has any glaringly obvious gaps in their knowledge. EASA PPL Requirements can be found here.

Request For Information From My Readers

I am in the process of gathering up information to make the oral test easier for students. This will apply to pilots who are being tested anywhere in the world. In order to help me obtain a database of the kinds of questions that an examiner might ask, I am asking you to send me any details you can remember about your oral test. If you can remember the questions that you were asked (especially the questions that you found difficult to answer) then these questions will help to make it easier for new students undergoing testing.

By using the “CONTACT” button to the right of the screen, you can leave me a message or just write in the questions that you were asked. I get many visitors to this site from the USA and Europe. I would like you all to think of the questions that you were asked and send them through to me. Send me any material relating to the PPL for Fixed Wing, Rotary, Balloon, Glider, Microlight and anything else that you can think of (as long as it relates to the PPL).

This knowledge will be useful to everyone and if I get enough data, I will make a separate post that will make the questions available to everyone.

Many Thanks

John.

Print Friendly

Convert FAA License to European Part-FCL License

EASA Logo

Convert FAA PPL/CPL/ATPL to EASA PPL

This post applies to anyone who has an ICAO helicopter license with a minimum of 100 hours flight time as a pilot. If you need to convert the ICAO licence to an EASA Part-FCL PPL license, this post will explain what is required. The new European license is commonly called an EASA licence but this is incorrect – its correct name is a ‘Part-FCL’ licence.

FAA pilot licenses are in use all over the world today. Air laws and air space vary from country to country, therefore many countries require conversion of licenses to make sure pilots are familiar and comply with local laws, procedures, airspace, etc. Many countries with high demand for pilots accept FAA licenses without any need for conversion.

If you are planning on flying in European airspace, you will be required to convert your FAA pilot license to an EASA (Part-FCL) pilot license. EASA stands for European Aviation Safety Agency, and is the centrepiece of the European Union’s strategy for aviation safety.

First of all, if you do not have at least 100 hours as a pilot in helicopters, it is going to be very expensive to convert and you will have to do a lot more flying. If you have 100 hours as a pilot then the following conversion process applies. All of this information is available in EASA document ‘Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011‘. Annex I of this document is known as Part-FCL and deals with everything in relation to Flight Crew Licensing.

The requirements for converting an ICAO PPL(H), CPL(H) or ATPL(H) to a Part-FCL PPL(H) are as follows:

  • Have completed at least 100 hours of flight time as a pilot.
  • Apply to the Competent Authority of the State/Country in which you wish to train.
  • Pass an English Language Proficiency (ELP) oral examination (there are no exceptions to this).
  • Hold either a class 1 or a class 2 medical certificate.
  • Complete a type rating on the helicopter you are going to be tested on. Normally, the type rating course will be of 5 hours duration.
  • Pass the Air Law and Human Performance written examinations (multiple choice).
  • Pass the PPL(H) Skill Test.

On completion of the above, you will be issued with a Part-FCL licence.

Convert FAA CPL/ATPL to EASA CPL

The requirements for converting an ICAO CPL(H) or ATPL(H) to a Part-FCL CPL(H) are as follows:

  • Apply to the Competent Authority of the State/Country in which you wish to train.
  • Have completed 155 hours flight time as a pilot in helicopters, including 50 hours as PIC of which 10 hours shall be cross-country (105 hours as pilot in helicopters if holder of a CPL(A), 135 hours as pilot in helicopters if holder of a PPL(A).
  • If not already holding a night qualification or rating, have completed 5 hours night flight time.
  • Pass all of the Theoretical Knowledge exams for either the CPL(H) or ATPL(H). These exams are explained in greater detail at http://helicopterblog.com/?p=733.
  • Flight training as required by the Head of Training of the training organisation. This will require an assessment flight before training commences.
  • Pass an English Language Proficiency (ELP) oral examination (there are no exceptions to this).
  • Hold a class 1 medical certificate.
  • Pass the CPL(H) Skill Test

Remember that all of the training (both flight and theoretical knowledge training) must be completed at an Approved Training Organisation (ATO). The Competent Authority in the country that you intend to train should have a list of all ATOs.

Print Friendly

Theoretical Knowledge Syllabus For CPL, ATPL and IR

I have duplicated the EASA syllabus. This theoretical knowledge syllabus is the current one at time of publication. Anyone planning to sit the theoretical knowledge subjects for the EASA exams will need to complete a course at an Approved Training Organisation (ATO) covering the syllabus described in the table below.

Refer to EASA documents AMC1 FCL.310; FCL.515 (b); FCL.615 (b)
SYLLABUS OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE ATPL, CPL AND IR
The following table contains the detailed theoretical knowledge syllabus for the ATPL, CPL and IR.
The applicable items for each licence or rating are marked with ‘x’.

 
 
Aeroplane
Aeroplane
Helicopter
Helicopter
Helicopter
 
ATPLCPLATPL/IRATPLCPLIR
010 00 00 00AIR LAW AND ATC PROCEDURESXXXXXX
010 01 00 00INTERNATIONAL LAW: CONVENTIONS, AGREEMENTS AND ORGANISATIONSXXXXXX
010 02 00 00AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFTXXXXXX
010 03 00 00AIRCRAFT NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKSXXXXXX
010 04 00 00PERSONNEL LICENSINGXXXXXX
010 05 00 00RULES OF THE AIRXXXXXX
010 06 00 00PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES: AIRCRAFT OPERATIONSXXXXXX
010 07 00 00AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENTXXXXXX
010 08 00 00AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICEXXXXXX
010 09 00 00AERODROMES OR HELIPORTSXXXXXX
010 10 00 00FACILITATIONXXXXXX
010 11 00 00SEARCH AND RESCUEXXXXXX
010 12 00 00SECURITYXXXXXX
010 13 00 00AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATIONXXXXXX
021 00 00 00AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE: AIRFRAME AND SYSTEMS, ELECTRICS, POWERPLANT AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENTXXXXXX
021 01 00 00SYSTEM DESIGN, LOADS, STRESSES AND MAINTENANCEXXXXXX
021 02 00 00AIRFRAMEXXXXXX
021 03 00 00HYDRAULICSXXXXXX
021 04 00 00LANDING GEAR, WHEELS, TYRES AND BRAKESXXXXXX
021 05 00 00FLIGHT CONTROLSXXXXXX
021 06 00 00PNEUMATICS: PRESSURISATION AND AIR CONDITIONINGXXXXXX
021 07 00 00ANTI AND DE-ICING SYSTEMSXXXXXX
021 08 00 00FUEL SYSTEMXXXXXX
021 09 00 00ELECTRICSXXXXXX
021 10 00 00PISTON ENGINESXXXXXX
021 11 00 00TURBINE ENGINESXXXXXX
021 12 00 00PROTECTION AND DETECTION SYSTEMSXXXXXX
021 13 00 00OXYGEN SYSTEMSXXXXXX
021 14 00 00HELICOPTER: MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMSXXXXXX
021 15 00 00HELICOPTER: ROTOR HEADSXXXXXX
021 16 00 00HELICOPTER: TRANSMISSIONXXXXXX
021 17 00 00HELICOPTER: BLADESXXXXXX
022 00 00 00AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE: INSTRUMENTATIONXXXXXX
022 01 00 00SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTSXXXXXX
022 02 00 00MEASUREMENT OF AIR DATA PARAMETERSXXXXXX
022 03 00 00MAGNETISM: DIRECT READING COMPASS AND FLUX VALVEXXXXXX
022 04 00 00GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTSXXXXXX
022 05 00 00INERTIAL NAVIGATION AND REFERENCE SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 06 00 00AEROPLANE: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 07 00 00HELICOPTER: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 08 00 00TRIMS, YAW DAMPER AND FLIGHT ENVELOPE PROTECTIONXXXXXX
022 09 00 00AUTOTHROTTLE: AUTOMATIC THRUST CONTROL SYSTEMXXXXXX
022 10 00 00COMMUNICATION SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 11 00 00FMSXXXXXX
022 12 00 00ALERTING SYSTEMS AND PROXIMITY SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 13 00 00INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS: ELECTRONIC DISPLAYSXXXXXX
022 14 00 00MAINTENANCE, MONITORING AND RECORDING SYSTEMSXXXXXX
022 15 00 00DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND COMPUTERSXXXXXX
030 00 00 00FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND PLANNINGXXXXX
031 00 00 00MASS AND BALANCE: AEROPLANES OR HELICOPTERSXXXXX
031 01 00 00PURPOSE OF MASS AND BALANCE CONSIDERATIONSXXXXX
031 02 00 00LOADINGXXXXX
031 03 00 00FUNDAMENTALS OF CG CALCULATIONSXXXXX
031 04 00 00MASS AND BALANCE DETAILS OF AIRCRAFTXXXXX
031 05 00 00DETERMINATION OF CG POSITIONXXXXX
031 06 00 00CARGO HANDLINGXXXXX
032 00 00 00PERFORMANCE: AEROPLANESXX
032 01 00 00GENERALXX
032 02 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS B: SE AEROPLANESXX
032 03 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS B: ME AEROPLANESXX
032 04 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS A : AEROPLANES CERTIFICATED UNDER CS-25 ONLYXX
033 00 00 00FLIGHT PLANNING AND FLIGHT MONITORINGXXXXXX
033 01 00 00FLIGHT PLANNING FOR VFR FLIGHTSXXXXXX
033 02 00 00FLIGHT PLANNING FOR IFR FLIGHTSXXXXXX
033 03 00 00FUEL PLANNINGXXXXXX
033 04 00 00PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATIONXXXXXX
033 05 00 00ATS FLIGHT PLANXXXXXX
033 06 00 00FLIGHT MONITORING AND IN-FLIGHT RE-PLANNINGXXXXXX
034 00 00 00PERFORMANCE: HELICOPTERSXXX
034 01 00 00GENERALXXX
034 02 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS 3 SE HELICOPTERS ONLYXXX
034 03 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS 2XXX
034 04 00 00PERFORMANCE CLASS 1 HELICOPTERS CERTIFICATED UNDER CS 29 ONLYXXX
040 00 00 00HUMAN PERFORMANCEXXXXXX
040 01 00 00HUMAN FACTORS: BASIC CONCEPTSXXXXXX
040 02 00 00BASIC AVIATION PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH MAINTENANCEXXXXXX
040 03 00 00BASIC AVIATION PSYCHOLOGYXXXXXX
050 00 00 00METEOROLOGYXXXXXX
050 01 00 00THE ATMOSPHEREXXXXXX
050 02 00 00WINDXXXXXX
050 03 00 00THERMODYNAMICSXXXXXX
050 04 00 00CLOUDS AND FOGXXXXXX
050 05 00 00PRECIPITATIONXXXXXX
050 06 00 00AIR MASSES AND FRONTSXXXXXX
050 07 00 00PRESSURE SYSTEMSXXXXXX
050 08 00 00CLIMATOLOGYXXXXXX
050 09 00 00FLIGHT HAZARDSXXXXXX
050 10 00 00METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATIONXXXXXX
060 00 00 00NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
061 00 00 00GENERAL NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
061 01 00 00BASICS OF NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
061 02 00 00MAGNETISM AND COMPASSESXXXXXX
061 03 00 00CHARTSXXXXXX
061 04 00 00DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
061 05 00 00IN-FLIGHT NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
062 00 00 00RADIO NAVIGATIONXXXXXX
062 01 00 00BASIC RADIO PROPAGATION THEORYXXXXXX
062 02 00 00RADIO AIDSXXXXXX
062 03 00 00RADARXXXXXX
062 04 00 00INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANKXXXXXX
062 05 00 00AREA NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AND RNAV OR FMSXXXXXX
062 06 00 00GNSSXXXXXX
070 00 00 00OPERATIONAL PROCEDURESXXXXX
071 01 00 00GENERAL REQUIREMENTSXXXXX
071 02 00 00SPECIAL OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES AND HAZARDS (GENERAL ASPECTS)XXXXX
071 03 00 00HELICOPTER EMERGENCY PROCEDURESXXXXX
080 00 00 00PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHTXXXXX
081 00 00 00PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT: AEROPLANEXX
081 01 00 00SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICSXX
081 02 00 00HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICSXX
081 03 00 00INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANKXX
081 04 00 00STABILITYXX
081 05 00 00CONTROLXX
081 06 00 00LIMITATIONSXX
081 07 00 00PROPELLERSXX
081 08 00 00FLIGHT MECHANICSXX
082 00 00 00PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT: HELICOPTERXXX
082 01 00 00SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICSXXX
082 02 00 00TRANSONIC AERODYNAMICS AND COMPRESSIBILITY EFFECTSXXX
082 03 00 00ROTORCRAFT TYPESXXX
082 04 00 00MAIN ROTOR AERODYNAMICSXXX
082 05 00 00MAIN ROTOR MECHANICSXXX
082 06 00 00TAIL ROTORSXXX
082 07 00 00EQUILIBRIUM, STABILITY AND CONTROLXXX
082 08 00 00HELICOPTER FLIGHT MECHANICSXXX
090 00 00 00COMMUNICATIONSXXXXXX
091 00 00 00VFR COMMUNICATIONSXXXXXX
091 01 00 00DEFINITIONSXXXXXX
091 02 00 00GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURESXXXXXX
091 03 00 00RELEVANT WEATHER INFORMATION TERMS (VFR)XXXXXX
091 04 00 00ACTION REQUIRED TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF COMMUNICATION FAILUREXXXXXX
091 05 00 00DISTRESS AND URGENCY PROCEDURESXXXXXX
091 06 00 00GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF VHF PROPAGATION AND ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCIESXXXXXX
092 00 00 00IFR COMMUNICATIONSXX
092 01 00 00DEFINITIONSXX
092 02 00 00GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURESXX
092 03 00 00ACTION REQUIRED TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF COMMUNICATION FAILUREXX
092 04 00 00DISTRESS AND URGENCY PROCEDURESXX
092 05 00 00RELEVANT WEATHER INFORMATION TERMS (IFR)XX
092 06 00 00GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF VHF PROPAGATION AND ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCIESXX
092 07 00 00MORSE CODEXX

Print Friendly

Renewing an Expired EASA Type Rating

If you have let your helicopter type rating lapse – i.e. you forgot to do the annual License Proficiency Check (LPC) on time; then you will have to renew the rating before you can fly as PIC. Under EASA regulations this is quite practical and very straight forward.

The amount of training you will be required to do depends on three factors:

  • Your experience.
  • How long the type rating has lapsed
  • The complexity of the aircraft

The requirements are all explained in EASA Document PART FCL Acceptable Means of Compliance AMC1 FCL.740(b)(1).

If the type rating has lapsed, you will have to do refresher training at an Approved Training Organisation (ATO). The objective of the training is to reach the proficiency necessary to safely operate the relevant type or class of aircraft.

To determine your experience, the ATO will evaluate your log book and , if necessary, conduct a test in a Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD)

The amount of time lapsed since the expiry of the validity period of the rating is the most influential variable here for most people. The amount of training needed to reach the desired level of proficiency will increase with the time lapsed. In some cases, after evaluating the pilot, and when the time lapsed is very limited (less than 3 months) the ATO may even determine that no further refresther training is necessary. When determining the needs of the pilot, the following items will be taken into consideration:

  • Expiry shorter than 3 months: no supplementary requirements
  • Expiry longer than 3 months but less than 1 year: a minimum of 2 training sessions
  • Expiry longer than 1 year but less than 3 years: a minimum of 3 training sessions in which the most important malfunctions in the available systems are covered
  • Expiry longer than 3 years: the pilot should undergo the training required for the initial issue of the rating or, in case of helicopter, the training required for the ‘additional type issue’, according to other valid ratings held.

Once the ATO has determined the needs of the pilot, it will develop an individual training programme that should be based on the initial training for the issue of the rating and focus on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.

After successful completion of the training, the ATO will issue a certificate or other documental evidence that the training has been successfully achieved to the pilot. This will be submitted to the relevant Authority when applying for the type rating renewal. The certificate or other documental evidence must contain a description of the training programme.

On successful completion of a License Skills Test (LST) the pilot must then wait for the  type rating to be renewed on their license before flying as PIC.

Print Friendly

The ICAO Flight Plan

Screen Shot 2014-04-25 at 16.55.37

The Flight Plan

Correct use of the flight plan is essential for all pilots. In Ireland, flight plans can be filed by the following methods:

  • Telephone
  • Fax
  • Electronically (IAA Website)
  • In-flight

This post will primarily focus on how to complete the written version of the ICAO flight plan. Students are expected to know how to file a flight plan and must know how to complete the flight plan properly. Mistakes in the flight plan will lead to delays in the flight.

Any pilot flying into (or passing through) Irish Controlled Airspace will be required to file a flight plan at least 60 minutes in advance. If you are landing at an aerodrome that is notified as Prior Permission Required (PPR), you should note that the filing of a flight plan does not constitute prior permission. Flight Plans are required for the following:

  • Any flight passing through Class A airspace
  • Any flight passing through Class C airspace
  • Any flight crossing an international Flight Information Region (FIR)
  • When flying more than 3nm from the coast or over a mountainous or sparsely populated area

Although a flight plan is required for all flights within controlled airspace, you may file a flight plan for any flight (even if the flight is completely outside controlled airspace).

When completing a flight plan, the following rules apply:

  • Use capital letters, one letter in each space of the field (unless field are not divided into spaces)
  • Adhere to the prescribed formats and manner of specifying data
  • Any data should be inserted only in the fields and spaces provided.
  • Where excess space is available, leave unused spaces blank.
  • All times should be clock times in 4 figures UTC (e.g., 1800, 0930, etc.). Do not use separators e.g. colons
  • The term “aerodrome”, where used in the flight plan, is intended to cover also sites other than aerodromes, which may be used by certain types of aircraft, e.g., helicopters or balloons.
  • Note that item numbers on the form are not consecutive (they correspond to item type in standard ATS messages).
  • Items preceding item 7 are to be completed by ATC and COM services
  • Items 7 to 18 should be completed as indicated below.
  • Item 19 completion is to facilitate alerting of SAR (Search and Rescue) services.

Contents of the Flight Plan

Item 7

AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION (maximum 7 characters)

This consists of the aircraft registration letters (or the company designator followed by the flight number) which are to be used by air traffic services for radiotelephony communication and coordination.

This field can be filled in by entering the registration of the aircraft (omit any hyphens). E.g. EI-DDA would be entered as EIDDA.

Item 8

FLIGHT RULES AND TYPE OF FLIGHT (2 characters)

This item indicates both flight rules and type of flight. Flight rules are important due to different regulations, weather and separation minimums for IFR and VFR flights.

Insert one of the following letters to denote the category of flight rules with which the pilot intends to comply. Options are:

I for IFR
V for VFR
Y for IFR first, then VFR (this will indicate to ATS that during the flight a pilot will call for IFR flight cancellation)
Z for VFR first, then IFR (this will indicate to ATS that during the flight a pilot will call for changing to IFR which will require ATC clearance from ATS)

If “Y” or “Z” is filed, specify, in the route section of the flight plan, the point(s) where a change in flight rules is planned. Similarly, where there is more than one change in the type of flight rules, the code to be used is to reflect the first rule, i.e., use “Z” for VFR/IFR/VFR.

Then insert one of the following letters to denote the type of flight if required by the appropriate ATS authority. Options are:

S for scheduled air service
N for non-scheduled air service
G for general aviation
M for military
X for other than the preceding categories

The most common option for general aviation is: VG (assuming You will fly VFR general aviation flight)

Item 9

NUMBER AND TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AND WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORY

Insert number of aircraft, if more than one (1 or 2 characters) followed by type of aircraft (2 to 4 characters).

The type of aircraft is indicated by the manufacturer’s designator. If no such designator has been assigned, or in the case of formation flights comprising more than one type, insert “ZZZZ” and specify the number(s) and type(s) of aircraft in Item 18 (see below) preceded by “TYP/” (up to 60 characters can be put, for example: TYP/3R44 2B206).

ICAO aircraft type designators are presented in ICAO Doc 8643.

The designator for the Robinson R44 is – R44

The designator for the Robinson R22 is – R22

Then add ICAO Wake Turbulence Category (1 character). Options are:

  • /L – LIGHT, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of 7000 kg (15 500 lbs) or less.
  • /M – MEDIUM, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of less than 136 000 kg (300 000 lbs), but more than 7 000 kg (15 500 lbs).
  • /H – HEAVY, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of 136000 kg (300 000 lbs) or more.

Item 10

EQUIPMENT

The COM/NAV/SSR equipment on board and its serviceability must be inserted by adding the appropriate suffixes. The first suffixes will denote the COM/NAV equipment, followed by an oblique stroke, and another suffix to denote the SSR equipment. Options for COM/NAV equipment are:

N if no COM/NAV/approach aid equipment for the route to be flown is carried, or the equipment is unserviceable,
or S if standard COM/NAV/approach aid equipment for the route to be flown is available and serviceable.

IMPORTANT: standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, VOR and ILS unless another combination is prescribed by aviation authority local regulations.

NOTE: many pilots use “S” even though they do not have all the elements of ‘standard’ present and certified (for example no ILS). THIS IS A SERIOUS MISTAKE. If you are in the habit of doing this, list all your equipment with the letters given below.

If none of the above options apply or the aircraft has more equipment than indicated by “S” insert one or more of the following letters to indicate the COM/NAV/approach aid equipment available and serviceable:

COM/NAV equipment (only the codes most often encountered by General Aviation codes are given; for the complete list, refer to ICAO documents):

D – DME
F – ADF
G – GNSS (IMPORTANT: When using the letter “G” on an IFR flight plan, the GPS receiver must be approved in accordance with the requirements from aviation authority). If used a NAV/ element in field 18 should be used to indicate the type of GNSS system.
H – HF RTF
K – MLS
L – ILS
O – VOR
U – UHF RTF
V – VHF RTF
Z – other equipment carried (IMPORTANT: if the letter “Z” is used, specify in Item 18 the other equipment carried, preceded by COM/ and/or NAV/, as appropriate.)

Surveillance (SSR) equipment

Here insert one or two of the following letters to describe the serviceable SSR equipment carried:

N – None
A – Transponder – Mode A (code only indication)
C – Transponder – Mode A and Mode C (code and altitude indication)
E – Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude and extended squitter (ADS-B) capability
H – Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude and enhanced surveillance capability
I – Mode S, including aircraft identification, but no pressure-altitude capability
L – Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude, extended squitter (ADS-B) and enhanced surveillance capability
X – Transponder – Mode S without both aircraft identification and pressure altitude transmission
P – Transponder – Mode S, including pressure altitude transmission, but no aircraft identification transmission
S – Transponder – Mode S, including both pressure-altitude and aircraft identification transmission.

Other indicators are B1, B2, U1, U2, V1, V2, D1 and G1 but these are very unlikely to be used in general aviation.

Examples: Aircraft with VHF only and no transponder – insert V/N. Aircraft with VHF, VOR, ADF, ILS, DME, HF, Mode A and C transponder – insert SDH/C.

REMEMBER to add oblique stroke between COM/NAV equipment codes and SSR equipment code.

The most frequent option for general aviation is: S/C

Item 13

DEPARTURE AERODROME AND TIME

(1) Departure Aerodrome (maximum 4 characters)

On an ICAO flight plan, use four character location indicators.

Example: EIWT, EICK, EIWF.
ICAO aerodrome designators are presented in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) or ICAO Doc 7910.

If no location indicator is specified, as is the case in private landing sites or many of the land VFR aerodromes, insert “ZZZZ” and specify the latitude and longitude in Item 18 preceded by “DEP/”.

Example: DEP/…………… AIRPORT

If the name of the departure point is not listed in any aeronautical publication, to indicate it in Item 18 use:

- degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude.
Example: DEP/5023N02214E
- bearing and distance to a navigation point or navigational aid.
Example: DEP/ABC180017 (which means bearing 180 degrees and distance 17 NM from ABC aid)

(2) Departure Time (maximum 4 characters)

Indicate the hour and minutes in Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) your estimated off-block time. Do not use nonalphanumeric characters (+ . ; = , ) they will not be accepted or printed.

             Example: 1132

Item 15

CRUISING SPEED, ALTITUDE/LEVEL AND ROUTE

This is the most complex item. It contains very important information from the point of view of ATS therefore a careful and correct filling of this field is required. Mistakes in this field may be an indirect reason for such hazardous occurences as airspace infringement.

In item 15 insert:

a) the first cruising speed as described in (A) below,
b) the first cruising level as described in (B) below, and
c) the route description as described in (C) below.

 

(A) Cruising Speed (maximum 5 characters)

Insert the true airspeed for the first or the whole cruising portion of the flight, in terms of knots expressed as “N” followed by 4 figures

Example: N0110 (which means 110 knots true airspeed)

General aviation example: N0115 (assuming that You will fly with speed 115 knots)

(B) Cruising Level (maximum 5 characters)

Insert the planned cruising level for the first or the whole portion of the route to be flown, in terms of:

a) flight level, expressed as “F” followed by 3 figures or
Example: F085 (which means flight level 085),
b) altitude in hundreds of feet, expressed as “A” followed by 3 figures
Example: A055 (which means 5500 feet altitude)
c) only for VFR flights in uncontrolled airspace, the letters “VFR”.

General aviation example: A015 (assuming that You will fly at 1500 feet altitude)

(C) Route (including changes of speed, level and/or flight rules)

To fill in the “Route” field use points (1) to (3) below and after each element add a single space. IFR flights and flights following designated airways are not within the scope of this post and are not referenced here.

(1) Flights outside designated ATS Routes:

Insert points normally not more than 30 minutes flying time or 370 km (200 NM) apart including each point at which a change of speed or level, a change of track, or a change of flight rules is planned or when required by the appropriate ATS authority(ies).
Insert DCT between successive points unless both points are defined by geographical co-ordinates or by bearing and distance.

 

(2) Significant point (2 to 11 characters)

(a) Degrees only (7 characters):
Insert 2 figures describing latitude in degrees, followed by “N” (North) or “S” (South) then followed by 3 figures describing longitude in degrees, followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West). Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros.
Example:51N025E
(b) Degrees and minutes (11 characters):
Insert 4 figures describing latitude in degrees, and tens and units of minutes followed by “N” (North) or “S” (South), followed by 5 figures describing longitude in degrees and tens and units of minutes, followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West). Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros.
Example:5220N00705W
(c) Bearing and distance from a navaid or navigation point:
Insert the identification of the navaid (normally a VOR) or the name of navigation point, in the form of 2 or 3 characters (navaid) up to 11 characters when name of the point is used, next the bearing from the navaid/point in the form of 3 figures giving degrees magnetic, next the distance from the navaid/point in the form of 3 figures expressing nautical miles. Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeroes.
Example: a point 170° magnetic at a distance of 20 NM from VOR “KLY” should be expressed as KLY170020.

 

(3) Change of speed and level (maximum 21 characters)

Insert the point at which a change of speed (more than 5% TAS) or a change of level is planned, expressed exactly as in (1), followed by an oblique stroke and both the cruising speed and the cruising level without a space between them, even when only one of these quantities will be changed.
Examples:LN/N0284A045
RUDKA/N0305F100
52N021W/K0260M080
4602N07805W/K0200F165

 

Item 16

DESTINATION AERODROME, TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME AND ALTERNATE AERODROME(S)

(a) Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time (10 characters maximum)

Insert the ICAO 4-letter location indicator of the destination aerodrome followed by the total estimated elapsed time of your flight (NOT the planned time of landing).
Insert “ZZZZ” followed, without a space, by the total estimated elapsed time, and specify the aerodrome name in Item 18 (below).

If the name of the arrival point is not listed in any aeronautical publication, to indicate it in Item 18 use:

- degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude.
Example: ARR/5417N02005E
- bearing and distance to a navigation point or navigational aid.
Example: ARR/KLY320008 (which means bearing 320 degrees and distance 8 NM from KLY point)

(b) Alternate aerodrome(s) (4 characters – ICAO)

Insert the ICAO 4-letter location indicator(s) of not more than two alternate aerodromes, separated by a space or, if no location indicator has been assigned to the alternate aerodrome, insert “ZZZZ” and specify in Item 18 the name of the aerodrome, preceded by ALTN/. Rules concerning indicating alternate aerodromes positions (if not listed by ICAO code) are the same as for DEP/ and ARR/ elements.
NOTE: no alternate aerodrome is required in a VFR flight plan.

 

Item 18

OTHER INFORMATION

This item is for all other additional, important or helpful informations (not all are presented here; only those mostly used by GA pilots).

(a) “DEP/” followed by the name of the departure airport or bearing and distance to navaid/navigation point closest to departure point or coordinates (if no designator is assigned and “ZZZZ” is inserted in item 13). Up to 50 characters may be used.

Example: DEP/……… AIRPORT

(b) “DEST/” followed by the name of the destination airport or bearing and distance to navaid/navigation point closest to destination point or coordinates (if no designator is assigned and “ZZZZ” is inserted in item 16). Up to 50 characters may be used.

Example: DEST/……… AIRPORT

 

(c) “TYP/” followed by type(s) of aircraft, proceeded if necessary by number(s) of aircraft, if “ZZZZ” is inserted in Item 9

Example: TYP/2 AS350. Up to 60 characters may be used.

 

(d) “REG/” followed by the registration markings of the aircraft, if different from the aircraft identification in Item 7.

Example: REG/4XDKM. Up to 50 characters may be used.

 

(e) “ALTN/” followed by the name of alternate aerodrome(s) or bearing and distance to navaid/navigation point closest to alternate point, if “ZZZZ” is inserted in Item 16. Up to 100 characters may be used.

Example: ALTN/……… AIRPORT

 

(f) “DLE/” followed by details related to delay enroute (for example for the need of flight training). A place in space should be described as in, for example, DEP/ item, either by navaid or bearing and distance from a significant point enroute, along with duration of the delay. Up to 11 characters followed by 4 digits may be used.

Example 1: DLE/KLY0015 – delay over KLY navaid, duration 15 minutes

 

Example 2: DLE/WTD2300200040 – delay at point 230 degrees and 20 NM from WTD NDB point, duration 40 minutes

 

(g) “COM/” followed by significant data related to communication equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority. Up to 50 characters may be used.

Example: COM/UHF only (which mean that pilot will be able to communicate on UHF only)

 

(h) “NAV/” followed by significant data related to navigation equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority.

Example: NAV/INS (which means that inertial system is available and cerified on board). Up to 50 characters may be used.

(i) “EET/” followed by significant waypoints or FIR boundary designators with accumulated estimated elapsed times from takeoff to such points, if required/prescribed by appropriate ATS authority.

Example:EET/ABC0120 XYZ0200 (which means that point ABC will be passed 1 hour and 20 minutes after departure and point XYZ 2 hours after departure)
EET/EINN0204 (which means that entering of Shannon FIR is planned 2 hours and 4 minutes after departure)

 

(j) “STS/” followed by particular reason for special handling by ATS (hospital aircraft – STS/HOSP, one engine inoperative would be – STS/ONE ENG INOP, no radio – STS/NORDO)

Example: STS/HAZ (which means hazardous cargo on board)

 

Other abbreviations include the following:

- ALTRV – for flight with specified altitude reservation
- FFR – for fire-fighting flights
- HAZMAT – for flights with hazardous materials

Two abbrevaitions are no longer valid: “ATFMEXEMPTAPPROVED” and “EMER”

(k) “OPR/” followed by name of the operator, if not obvious from the aircraft identification in Item 7.

Example: OPR/BIG COMPANY

 

(l) “DOF/” followed by the date of the flight in a six-figure format (if flight plan was filed on earlier date, maximum 120 hours before EOBT).

Example: DOF/140613 (which indicated that the flight will take place on 13th of June 2014)

 

(m) “PER/” followed by performance of the aircraft according to ICAO document 8168 (categories “A”,”B”,”C”,”D”,”E” or “H” for helicopters).

Example: PER/A

 

(n) “ORGN/” followed by contact details to flight plan originator. Up to 30 characters may be used.

 

(o) “RMK/” followed by any other, plain language, remarks when required by the appropriate ATS authority or deemed necessary. There is no limit in number of characters to be used.

Example:RMK/TRAINING ILS APPROACH AT ………. AIRPORT
RMK/STUDENT SOLO FLIGHT

 

Item 19

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

Here one can provide all information concerning safety and security of the flight as well as details helpful during search and rescue mission.

(a) “E/” and 4 figure group indicates the fuel endurance in hours and minutes.

Example: E/0430

(b) “P/” allows insertion of the total number of people (passengers and crew) on board. If total number is not known during flight plan filling, insert “P/TBN” (to be notified). Use leading zeros if necessary to make three digits in this field.

Example: P/005 NOT P/5 or P/050.

(c) at position “R/” (radio):

- cross out indicator “U” if UHF on frequency 243.0 MHz is not available
- cross out indicator “V” if VHF on frequency 121.5 MHz is not available
- cross out indicator “E” if an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is not available.

(d) at position “S/” (survival):

- cross out all indicators if survival equipment is not carried
- cross out indicator “P” if polar survival equipment is not carried
- cross out indicator “D” if desert survival equipment is not carried
- cross out indicator “M” if maritime survival equipment is not carried
- cross out indicator “J” if jungle survival equipment is not carried.

(e) at position “J/” (jackets):

- cross out all indicators if life jackets are not carried
- cross out indicator “L” if life jackets are not equipped with lights
- cross out indicator “F” if life jackets are not equipped with fluorescein
- cross out indicator “U” or “V” or both (as in “R/” above) to indicate radio capability of jackets, if any.

(f) at position “D/” (dinghies):

- cross out indicators “D” and “C” if no dinghies are carried or
- insert:
(NUMBER) – number of dinghies carried (example: 02) and
(CAPACITY) – total capacity, in persons, of all dinghies carried (example: 006) and
(COVER) – cross out indicator C if dinghies are not covered and
(COLOUR) – insert colour of dinghies if carried.

(g) at position “A/” (aircraft) insert colour of aircraft and significant markings.

(h) at position “N/” (remarks) :

- cross out indicator “N” if no remarks or
- indicate any other survival equipment carried and any other remarks regarding survival equipment.

(i) at position “C/” (pilot) insert name of pilot-in-command.

Sample Flight Plan

ICAO Flight Plan

Print Friendly