EASA Air Law For The PPL

Updated on September 24, 2016

EASA Book Cover

Under EASA regulations, the syllabus for the Air Law theory for PPL students has changed considerably. All of these changes have required Approved Training Organisations to rewrite their training material. To date, there are no books to teach the new EASA regulations in Ireland.

For this reason, I have written a book specifically for PPL students (fixed wing and rotary) to give them the required knowledge to pass the EASA Aviation Law examination. The book covers everything listed in the EASA requirements for this subject.

For a FREE PREVIEW – Click Here

Please leave a review if you get a chance as it will really help me sell the book. Reviews really make a difference and I would be very grateful.

“EASA Air Law For The PPL – Air Law For The Irish Pilot” can be purchased using the link below:



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How to Progress Your Career

Updated on 24th September, 2016

Helicopter Preflight


Almost invariably I get asked the same questions on every course that I teach. When I run a commercial course, the CPL students will at some stage, almost always ask me “What do I have to do to get ahead in the helicopter industry?” or words to that effect.

In my opinion this is an easy question to answer and actually pretty easy to achieve if you are prepared to work hard.

What You Need to Do

So what do you need to do to progress your career as a helicopter pilot?

Well you actually do not have to do very much. You only need to do what you were trained to do. I will provide a list below of what I think is important. I would expect all helicopter pilots to be able to do the following.

  • Never be late.
  • Arrive early enough to work so that you are not rushing to get your preflight tasks completed.
  • If you perform the daily preflight checks, make sure that you take your time and do them properly.
  • Take your time when completing paperwork – accuracy is important.
  • Keep up to date with changes in legislation or operations etc.
  • Dress appropriately.
  • Fly accurately and to the best of your ability.
  • Offer your assistance to anyone who needs it.
  • If you have nothing to do, look for small jobs that you may be able to do.
  • If you have a problem, try to think of a solution before running off to report it.
  • Think about the “What if” scenarios. Have a “Plan B”
  • If you make a mistake, put your hand up and accept responsibility.

The list is not conclusive and I am sure there are plenty of other items that could be added to it. But if you can manage to consistently do the things on the list, then that is all you need to do. Without doing anything else you will get noticed. People appreciate hard work. You will get noticed for being consistent and for being a hard worker. All employers love hard workers.

Putting it into Practice

I tell my students that they should be striving to achieve everything on the list but that they can do more. They should aim to be the best pilots that they can possibly be. Perfection is unobtainable but that is what you should strive for. You should aim to be better than all of the other employees in the company.

Being better does not mean only flying better. Of course the flying skills are important but there is so much more to it than that. Your expert knowledge will also set you apart. It never ceases to amaze me how many CPL pilots coming through to do the Flight Instructor (FI) course, who have big gaps in their theoretical knowledge. Gaps in subjects like Air Law, Meteorology and Principle of Flight are common because they have not looked at a book since they obtained their CPL.

If you want to be different, refresh your knowledge. Become an expert in your field. Let people come to you for the answers because they know that you have the knowledge. You have the answers. Of course you will never be capable of knowing it all. No one can achieve that. But you can know more than anyone else if you put your mind to it.


Therefore what you need to do to progress in the helicopter industry is be the best pilot that you can be. Learn as much as you can about technical matters, relevant legislation, meteorology etc. And generally work as hard as you can and help out as much as you can – all while being a nice person to work with.

Do not try to step on other peoples shoulders to make it up the ladder. This will come back to haunt you in years to come. Just by keeping your head down and helping others while doing your job to the best of your ability is guaranteed to get you noticed by the right people.

Let me know if you think this was useful by leaving a comment below. Thank you.

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Helicopter Stability

Updated on 18th August, 2016



Stability can be simply classified as static stability or dynamic stability.

  • Static Stability. If an object is disturbed from a given position and following this disturbance it tends to return to this position of its own accord, it is said to be statically stable. If, following the disturbance, it continues to move further and further away from its original position, it is said to be statically unstable; if it remains in the disturbed position, it is said to be statically neutrally stable.

Static Stability

Static Stability

  • Dynamic Stability. If an object is statically stable it will return to its original position, but in doing so, it may initially overshoot. If the amplitude of the oscillations decreases and dies out, it is said to be dynamically stable. If the amplitude of the oscillations increases, then it is said to be dynamically unstable, and if the oscillations continue, but at a constant amplitude, it is said to be dynamically neutrally stable.

Dynamic Stability

Dynamic Stability

Stability in the Hover

Consider a helicopter hovering in still air when a gust of wind affects the rotor disc from the side. The disc will flap away from the wind and, if no corrective action is taken by the pilot, the helicopter will move away from the gust. After a short while the gust of wind dies out but, because the helicopter is moving sideways, it will now experience an airflow coming from the opposite direction. The helicopter will now slow down as the disc begins to flap away from this new airflow; in addition, the fuselage will tend to follow through as an overswing, thereby tilting the disc further than it was tilted before, and the helicopter will move sideways back towards its original position faster than it originally moved away. The movement of the helicopter will
result in it experiencing continual sideways changes in the airflow affecting the disc and, although it will be statically stable, because the amplitude of the oscillations will be continually increasing, it will be dynamically unstable. The effect of a gust of wind from any direction will produce the same effect on the disc, therefore the helicopter is dynamically unstable in the pitching and rolling planes.

A gust of wind will also affect the tail rotor. If for example the helicopter has a starboard mounted rotor and is struck by a gust from the starboard side the tail rotor’s angle of attack will decrease. Assisted by the weathercock action of the fuselage, the helicopter will then yaw into the gust, ie to starboard. The aircraft will also move away from the gust and in so doing it will reduce the effect of the gust on the tail rotor. The aircraft will then experience an airflow from its own sideways movement and the aircraft will yaw to port. Following the movement of the helicopter it can be seen that the fuselage will be alternately yawing to port and starboard with each successive sideways movement of the helicopter. Therefore, when hovering, the helicopter is statically stable but dynamically unstable in the yawing plane.


Stability in Forward Flight


If a gust of wind from the starboard side strikes the fuselage of a helicopter with a starboard mounted tail rotor in forward flight, the immediate effect is for the tail rotor’s angle of attack to decrease and the helicopter to yaw to starboard. But the inertia of the helicopter will continue to keep it on its original flight path; weathercock action will then return the fuselage to its original position. In forward flight, therefore, the helicopter is both statically and dynamically stable in the yawing plane.


If a gust of wind affects the disc from ahead, the disc will flap back, and forward thrust will reduce and the aircraft will decelerate. Because the centre of gravity is below the thrust line, the inertia of the fuselage will cause the aircraft to pitch nose up, taking the disc back further and thus decreasing speed even more. When the speed has stabilised at a lower figure, the fuselage will start to pitch down below its original position (pendulosity): at the same time the disc will flap forward relative to the fuselage (reduced flap back due to lower speed). Now the speed will start to increase with the helicopter descending in a shallow dive and, as the speed increases, the disc will begin to flap back again and the cycle will be repeated, but with increasing amplitude. The helicopter will finally be pitching outside control limits unless cyclic correction is applied early in the cycle. The helicopter is, therefore, statically stable because each oscillation will take it through its original position, but is dynamically unstable because the amplitude of the oscillations progressively increases.


Stability Aids


Tail Stabiliser


One method of improving stability in forward flight is by fitting a stabiliser at the tail of the fuselage. Its purpose is to help prevent the fuselage from following through when a gust of wind causes the disc to flap back. As the fuselage begins to pitch up, the increasing angle of attack on the stabiliser will damp down the movement and the rearward tilt of the disc will be greatly reduced; the reverse effect takes place when the fuselage pitches down. It should be noted, however, that the stabiliser will produce adverse effects if the helicopter is moving backwards: following a gust of wind which causes the disc to flap forward, the fuselage will pitch nose down and the tail will pitch up; this will increase the lifting force on the stabiliser, thereby increasing the pitch-up movement of the tail to a dangerous degree.


The Autostabiliser


The autostabiliser, is the simplest form of control system. The autostabiliser is a damping device without the ability to hold a given datum, hence a helicopter autopilot often consists of an autostabiliser to which long term datum holding is added. There are two types of autopilot which may be fitted to helicopters:


    • Basic Autopilot. A basic autopilot provides long term datum holding of one or more variables but does not permit the pilot to introduce demands through his controls. Trimmers may be used to make limited adjustments.


  • Directed Autopilot. A directed autopilot provides long term datum holding of one or more variables and also permits the pilot to introduce demands through his controls. Such an autopilot is also described as an Attitude Manoeuvre Demand System and may also be called Automatic Stabilisation Equipment.



As you can see, helicopter stability is not a simple topic but in general, helicopters are statically stable and dynamically unstable.


The helicopter is statically stable because each oscillation will take it through its original position, but it is dynamically unstable because the amplitude of the oscillations progressively increases.


For really technical information you can try reading this: http://www.aerojockey.com/papers/helicopter/report.html


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How Many Helicopters in the World?

Updated on 14th August, 2016

Rows of Schweizer Helicopters

How Many Aircraft in the World?

I am sure you have all wondered at some time or another how many helicopters are in the world today. Well, I did a little research and this is what I came up with.

Type of AircraftNumber
Active General Aviation Aircraft360,000
Passenger (Commercial) Aircraft17,770
Military Aircraft89,129
Civil Helicopters26,500
Military Helicopters29,700

General aviation (GA) is defined as all aviation other than scheduled commercial airlines and military aviation.

The 360,000 General Aviation Aircraft includes fixed wing, rotary and private business jets. General Aviation Statistical Databook & Industry Outlook. 209,000 of these aircraft are based in the USA (2012 data).

In 2012 there were 10,055 General Aviation helicopters in the USA and approximately 15,000 rotary pilots.

According to http://www.helis.com/faq/, in 2001; of the 26,500 Civil helicopters, distribution is as follows:

  • 46.1% in North America
  • 18.2% in Europe
  • 12.7% in former Soviet Union
  • 12.3% in Asia/Pacific region
  • 7.2% in South America
  • 3.4% in Middle East
  • 0.1% in Africa

Of the 29,700 Military Helicopters, distribution is as follows:

  • 33.5% in North America
  • 21.1% in Europe
  • 16.6% in former Soviet Union
  • 13.6% in Asia/Pacific region
  • 6.3% in the Middle East
  • 4.5% in Africa
  • 4.4% in South America?

Boeing forecasts there will be demand for more than 35,000 new planes worth $4.8tn (£3.1tn) over the next 20 years, with airlines keen to replace fuel-hungry older models to cope with high oil prices. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/jun/11/boeing-commercial-planes-double-asia-pacific.

According to Flight International’s 2003 Military Aircraft Census, there are an estimated 89,129 military aircraft worldwide.

These figures were very difficult to find and it must be remembered that the numbers are changing constantly.

For those of us who have the opportunity to fly helicopters, it is obvious that we are the privileged few. There are over 7 billion people on our planet today but there are only 56,200 helicopters.

Please let me know if you have any further information and as usual, feel free to leave any comments – good or bad.

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to everyone.

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