### The Flight Computer

Updated on 29th March,2016

## Flight Computer

The flight computer is available in many formats and helps pilots complete navigation calculations. They come in both mechanical and electronic forms and are available as apps for most smartphones today. We are going to concentrate on the mechanical version today because most examiners will not permit you to use electronic versions. Mechanical versions are more reliable in that they do not require batteries. The common one used in the USA is the E6-B and in the UK and Ireland it is normally the CRP-1 (up to CRP-5).

The basic flight computer is an amazing tool for any pilot to have. With a little practice, it is extremely easy to use. It is essentially a circular slide rule. One important thing to remember about the Flight Computer is that, it does not know decimals. It is up to the user to determine where to place the decimal point after a calculation. There are a few little tricks and secrets that are often forgot about.

The Flight Computer can:

- Calculate Wind Correction Angle
- Calculate Ground Speed
- Calculate True Airspeed
- Calculate Density Altitude
- Calculate Time Enroute
- Calculate Fuel Consumption
- Do basic division
- Do basic multiplication
- Do unit conversions
- Much More!

## Flight Computer History

The flight computer was originally called the E-6B and it was made by Lt. Philip Dalton (US Navy) in the 1930s. He had a patent on the device and it became very popular with pilots all over the world (especially during World War II). More than 400,000 E-6Bs were made from plastic during WWII. It is sometimes called the E6-B and the CRP-1 (and other CRP models) are based on this.

The E-6B has two sides:

- The calculator side
- The wind side

# The Calculator Side of The Flight Computer

The calculator side is basically a slide rule that consists of two circles.

- A stationary circle
- A movable, rotating circle

*Refer to Figure 1 for location of important parts of the E6-B flight computer.*

The numbers printed on the outside of the stationary circle are referred to as the “**Outer**” scale. The outer scale is used to represent distance, fuel, ground-speed, true airspeed, or corrected (true) altitude, depending on the calculation being performed.

The numbers printed on the inside of the rotating circle are referred to as the “**Inner**” scale. The inner scale is used to represent time, calibrated or indicated airspeed, and calibrated or indicated altitude, depending on the calculation being performed.

You will notice that the number “60” on the inner scale is associated with a large triangle. The “60” normally refers to one minute (60 seconds) and it is used frequently when performing calculations involving time such as:

- Speed (knots) (nautical miles per hour)
- Fuel consumption (gallons/liters per hour)

In the center of the rotating portion are three windows and these are used to compute corrected (true) altitude, density altitude, and true airspeed.

Remember the following:

- Time is
**ALWAYS**on the**INNER**scale - Since Time is
**ALWAYS**on the**INNER**scale, Volume or distance must**ALWAYS**be on the**OUTER**scale for Speed/Distance problems or for Fuel Consumption/Volume problems. - When doing Speed or Fuel Consumption calculations
**ALWAYS put “60” (INNER scale**) under the Speed or Fuel Consumption. I.e. Nautical miles per**HOUR**(60min) or Gallons per**HOUR**(60min). - When asked to solve a problem,
**write down the relevant data**. Write down the fuel consumption, time, distance etc. and make sure you know what the question is asking you for. If you do not write the data down, you are more likely to make an error.

#### Scale Values

The numbers marked on the scales can represent different values.

For example, the number 10 can also represent the following numbers:

- 0.1
- 1.0
- 10
- 100
- 1000 etc

You should also be aware that the number of marks between the numbers on the scales can vary. Sometimes there are nine and sometimes there are four. Therefore it is very important that you take note of this.

Each mark may be valued differently. On the outer circle, each mark between 12 and 13 may be valued as 0.1 but when read between the numbers 17 and 18, each mark has a value of 0.2. Not reading the value of the marks correctly will have a serious effect on the answer you calculate.

The inner scale can be used to represent time. You will notice that the number 90 on the inner scale has the number 1:30 printed below it i.e. 90 minutes = 1 hour and 30 minutes. This makes it easier to convert minutes to hours and minutes. Notice that on the hour scale, each tick can represent either 5 minutes or 10 minutes.

#### Temperature Conversion

Below the number 30 on the outer scale, you will find a temperature conversion scale. This is very handy for converting degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit or vice versa.

## Time – Speed – Distance

The inner and outer scales on the flight computer are like the scales of a slide rule. It can be seen that if you put 20 (outer scale) over 30 (inner scale), the following ratios hold good throughout the rest of the scale:

20 40 60

— = — = —

30 60 90

Problems are solved by using these ratios for distance, time and speed, or for gallons, time and fuel consumption rate.

The outer scale is used for distance and the inner scale represents time.

Because of the relationship of the scales of the flight computer; time, speed and distance problems are very easily calculated using the following equation.

. DISTANCE

SPEED = ———————

. TIME

**EXAMPLE 1**. Assume the speed to be 150 mph and time travelled is 36 minutes. What is the distance?

Solution: Place 150 mph over the one hour index (triangle). Find 36 minutes on the inner scale and read off a distance of 90 miles on the outer scale (distance scale for this type of question).

ANSWER: = 90 miles

**EXAMPLE 2.** Speed = 120 mph and distance = 200 miles. What is the time?

Solution: Set the index (60 on inner scale) under 120 (12 on outer scale). Opposite 200 (outer scale) read 100 minutes.

ANSWER: = 1 hour 40 minutes (100 minutes)

**EXAMPLE 3.** Time = 2 hours (120 minutes). Distance = 200 miles. What is the speed?

Solution: Set 200 (outer scale) over 120 minutes (inner scale). Locate the index (60 on inner scale) and read 100 mph (outer scale).

ANSWER: = 100 mph

**EXAMPLE 4**. Speed = 130 mph and time = 1 hour and 10 minutes (70 minutes). Find the distance.

Solution: Set index (inner scale) under 130 (13 on outer scale). Locate 70 minutes (inner scale) and read 152 on outer scale.

ANSWER: = 152 miles

**EXAMPLE 5**. Speed = 180 mph and distance = 330 miles. Find the time.

Solution: Set the index under 180. Opposite 330 (33 on outer scale) and read 110 minutes (inner scale).

ANSWER: = 110 minutes

## Fuel Consumption Problems

Fuel consumption problems are solved similarly to time, speed and distance problems except that volume is substituted for distance.

. Total Gallons

Gallons per Hour = ————————

. Total Time

**EXAMPLE 6. **Fuel consumption rate = 13 gallons/hour and time = 90 min. Find total fuel.

Solution: Place number 13 (outer scale) over the index (60 on the inner scale). Opposite 90 minutes on the inner scale, read 19.5 gallons.

ANSWER: 19.5 gallons

**EXAMPLE 7.** Fuel consumption rate = 9 gallons/hour. Total fuel = 22 gallons. Find flight time.

Solution: Place the index under 9. Opposite 22 (outer scale) read time of 147 minutes.

ANSWER: 2 hours 27 minutes (147 minutes)

**EXAMPLE 8. **Total fuel = 35 gallons. Time = 3 hours 10 minutes. Find fuel rate.

Solution: Place time of 3:10 under 35 (gallons). Read fuel rate of 11 gallons/hour opposite the index.

ANSWER: 11 gallons/hour

## Conversions

Indicated (or Calibrated) Airspeed and True Airspeed are equal at sea level under ISA conditions. As a helicopter climbs to a higher altitude, pressure and temperature will normally decrease. This change requires a correction to IAS to obtain TAS because TAS increases with altitude.

Pressure Altitude will be indicated on the altimeter when the sub-scale is set to 1013hPa.

### Conversion to TAS

**EXAMPLE 9: **Pressure altitude = 10,000 feet. Temperature = 0ºC. Calibrated Airspeed = 150 mph. Find True Airspeed and Density Altitude.

Solution: Using the Airspeed Correction Window, move the inner scale until the 10,000 feet pressure altitude is under 0ºC. Find 150 (inner scale) and read 176 (outer scale). In the Airspeed Correction Window, find the Density Altitude index arrow. Read a Density Altitude of 10,500.

ANSWER: TAS = 176 mph. Density Altitude = 10,500

Now use your flight computer to try and answer the following problems – Answers are listed below.

**EXAMPLE 10:** Pressure Altitude = 8000 ft. Temperature = -10ºC. IAS = 120 kt. Find TAS and Density Altitude.

**EXAMPLE 11:** Pressure Altitude = 9000 ft. Temperature = +10ºC. IAS = 140mph. Find TAS and Density Altitude.

**EXAMPLE 12:** Pressure Altitude = 5000ft. Temperature = +30ºC. IAS = 120mph. Find TAS and Density Altitude.

**EXAMPLE 13:** Pressure Altitude = 7000 ft. Temperature = -20ºC. IAS = 150 kt. Find TAS and Density Altitude.

**EXAMPLE 14:** Pressure Altitude = 12000ft. Temperature = -10ºC. IAS = 180mph. Find TAS and Density Altitude.

**ANSWER 10:** TAS = 133 kt. Density Altitude = 6900 ft

**ANSWER 11:** TAS = 164 mph. Density Altitude = 10500 ft

**ANSWER 12:** TAS = 135 mph. Density Altitude = 8000 ft

**ANSWER 13: **TAS = 160 kt. Density Altitude = 4500 ft

**ANSWER 14:** TAS = 216 mph. Density Altitude = 12000 ft

### Converting Miles to Kilometers

When any value of statute or nautical miles is set opposite the “stat” or “naut” index marks, the distance in kilometers may be read opposite the “Km” index mark (located on the outer scale).

### Converting US Gallons to Imperial Gallons

On the outer scale, locate the “U.S. gal.” and “imp. gal.” index marks.

When converting from US Gallons to Imperial Gallons, align the appropriate US Gallon number under the “U.S. gal.” index. The corresponding volume in Imperial Gallons can be read under the “imp. gal.” index.

When converting from Imperial Gallons to US Gallons, align the appropriate Imperial Gallon number under the “imp. gal.” index. The corresponding volume in US Gallons can be read under the “U.S. gal.” index.

### Converting Gallons to Liters

On the outer scale, locate the “U.S. gal.”, “imp. gal.” and “liters” index marks.

When converting from US Gallons or Imperial Gallons to Liters, align the appropriate US Gallon number under the “U.S. gal.” index or Imperial Gallon number under the “imp. gal.” index. The corresponding volume in Liters can be read under the “liters” index.

### Converting Nautical Miles to Statute Miles

On the outer scale, locate the “Naut” and “Stat” index marks.

When converting from Nautical miles to Statute miles, align the appropriate nautical mile number under the “Naut” index. The corresponding distance in Statute miles can be read under the “Stat” index.

When converting from Statute miles to Nautical miles, align the appropriate Statute mile number under the “Stat” index. The corresponding distance in Nautical miles can be read under the “Naut” index.

### Converting Pounds to Kilograms

On the outer scale, locate the “lb” and “kg” index marks.

When converting from Pounds to Kilograms, align the appropriate Pounds (weight) number under the “lb” index. The corresponding weight in Kilograms can be read under the “kg” index.

When converting from Kilograms to Pounds, align the appropriate Kilogram number under the “kg” index. The corresponding weight in Pounds can be read under the “lb” index.

### Converting Feet to Meters

When any value of feet is set under the “feet” or “ft” index mark on the outer scale, the distance in meters may be read opposite the “m” index mark (located on the outer scale).

## Multiplication

For multiplication use the number “10” on the inner scale as the index (not 60 [triangle]).

Use the following proportions:

. Multiplier Product

—————— = ———————

. 10 Other Factor

A sample problem would be:

2 x 4 = 8

On the flight computer, this problem would appear as:

2 x

— = — Therefore x = 8 (remember that the number 10 here represents 1 in the calculation)

10 4

## Division

Use the following proportions:

. Dividend Quotient

—————— = ——————

. Divisor 10

A sample problem would be:

8 ÷ 4 = 2

On the flight computer, this problem would appear as:

8 2

— = — (remember that the number 10 here represents 1 in the calculation)

4 10

Now use your flight computer to see if you can answer the following problems – Answers are listed below.

**EXAMPLE 15: **13 x 7 =

**EXAMPLE 16: **300 ÷ 15 =

**EXAMPLE 17: **19 x 5 =

**EXAMPLE 18: **345 ÷ 15 =

**EXAMPLE 19: **137 x 7 =

**ANSWER 15: ** 91

**ANSWER 16: ** 20

**ANSWER 17: ** 95

**ANSWER 18:** 23

**ANSWER 19: ** 959

# The Wind Side of The Flight Computer

The wind side of the flight computer is used mainly to calculate how much your aircraft is going to be blown of course by the wind and to help you calculate what course correction to make to compensate for this. It is possible to perform other calculation also and these will be covered below.

The three vectors in the triangle of velocities (see below) can be marked on the disc so that they appear in the same relationship to one another (as in flight) making it easier to visualise the situation and check that the vectors have been applied correctly.

The wind side of the flight computer is made up of the following components:

- A circular (rotatable) compass rose (or azimuth) that has an index marked on it.
- A transparent, plastic plotting disc with a centre dot (grommet).
- A sliding panel printed with concentric speed arcs and radial drift lines.

## The Triangle of Velocities

### The Wind Triangle

In dead-reckoning navigation many problems involving speed and direction have to be solved. Primarily, you are concerned with Ground Speed, True Heading, True Air Speed, Wind Direction, Wind Speed and True Course (or Track). Often you will know four of these six quantities and will need to determine the other two. For example, you may know True Heading, True Air Speed, Wind Direction and Wind Speed and need to know Track and Ground Speed. In order to solve such problems it is necessary to understand the relationship of these six quantities.

These quantities are represented by vectors. A vector is a quantity having both magnitude and direction. The vector quantity of most importance in navigation is velocity.

Velocity is speed in a specific direction. Wind velocity includes both Wind Speed and Wind Direction, not merely Wind Speed (WS) alone. Likewise, the velocity of an aircraft with relation to the earth’s surface includes both Track and Ground Speed. And the velocity of an aircraft with relation to the air in which it is flying includes both True Heading and True Air Speed.

The velocity of an aircraft over the earth’s surface depends on two quantities:

- The velocity of the aircraft through the air (True Heading and True Air Speed) and
- The velocity of the air over the earth (Wind Direction and Wind Speed)

A vector which thus results directly and entirely from two or more other vectors is said to be the **resultant** or vector sum of these other vectors. And two or more vectors whose sum or resultant is another vector are called **components** of this other vector. A change in any component will cause a change in the resultant.

### Vector Diagrams

A vector quantity, such as velocity, may be represented on paper by a straight line. The direction of the vector is shown by the line with reference to north. The vector usually is drawn like an arrow, with a head and a tail so that there can be no doubt as to its direction. The magnitude of the vector is shown by the length of the line in comparison with some arbitrary scale. For example, you may let 2.5 cm equal 20 nm. The a velocity of 50 kt in a certain direction is shown by a line 6.25 cm long [(50/20)x2.5] in that direction, *Figure 2*.

When two or more vectors are components of a third vector, this relationship may be shown by means of a vector diagram. If the components are drawn tail to head in any order, a line from the tail of the first component to the head of the last component represents the resultant. Consequently, if you know the components, you can find the resultant. And if you know the resultant, and all but one of the components, you can find the missing component, *Figure 3*.

A vector diagram showing the effects of the wind on the flight of an aircraft is called a wind triangle. One line is drawn to show the velocity of the aircraft through the air (True Heading and True Air Speed). This velocity is called the **true heading-true air speed vector** or **air vector**. Another line is drawn to the same scale and connected tail to head to show the velocity of the wind. This is the **wind vector**. A line connecting the tail of the first vector to the head of the second vector shows the resultant of these two velocities to the same scale; it shows the velocity of the aircraft over the earth (Track and Ground Speed). It is called the **track-ground speed vector** or **ground vector**. It does not matter which of the two components is drawn first; the resultant is the same, *Figure 4*.

Take care to remember that True Air Speed is always in the direction of True Heading and that Ground Speed is always in the direction of Track. Also remember that the track-ground speed vector is the resultant of the other two; hence the true heading-true air speed vector and the wind vector are always drawn head to tail.

An easy way to remember this is to recall that the wind always blows the aircraft from the True Heading to the Track (TR).

Consider just what the wind triangle in *Figure 5* above shows. An aircraft departs from point A on a True Heading of 360º at a True Air Speed of 150 kt. In one hour, if there were no wind, the aircraft would reach point B at a distance of 150 nm. The line AB shows the direction and distance the aircraft would have flown under no wind conditions. Therefore, the length of AB shows the True Air Speed of the aircraft. Thus, AB represents the velocity of the aircraft through the air and is the air vector.

Imagine that at the end of the first hour the aircraft stops flying forward and remains suspended in mid-air at point B. Suppose then that the wind starts blowing from 270º at 30 kt. At the end of the second hour the aircraft is at point C, 30 miles downwind from B. The line BC shows the direction and distance the aircraft has moved with the wind, or the direction and distance the air has moved in an hour. Therefore the length of BC represents the speed of the wind in the same scale as the True Air Speed. Thus, BC represents the wind velocity and is the wind vector.

As a result of the aircrafts forward motion and the effect of the wind during the same hour, the aircraft reaches C at the end of the first hour. It does not go to B and then to C. Instead, it goes directly by the line AC, since the wind carries it east at 30 kt at the same time that the engine forces it north at 150 kt. Therefore, the line AC shows the distance and direction the aircraft travels over the ground in one hour and the length of AC represents the Ground Speed in the same scale as the True Air Speed and Wind Speed. Thus AC, which is the resultant of AB and BC, represents the velocity of the aircraft over the ground and is the ground vector.

Measuring the length of AC, you find that the Ground Speed is about 153 kt. Measuring the drift angle BAC and applying it to the True Heading of 360º, you find that the track is 011, or 11º to the right.

### Work Only in Degrees True (or Totally in Degrees M)

It is most important that when working out the vector triangle, the directions are all related to the same datum. In Ireland it is common practice for PPL pilots to use degrees true. You can use degrees magnetic throughout and the result will be the same but it is vital to use the same units throughout your calculations.

### Choice of Method

The flight computer is such that each problem can be solved in a number of ways. Each method produces the same results. You must find a method that suits you. Initially, use the method recommended by your instructor. Once you have mastered this method, then feel free to try other methods.

Your flight computer will be mostly used during flight planning prior to flight. You will already know the following;

- Track (measured from the chart)
- Wind Velocity (obtained from weather forecasts and weather charts)
- True Air Speed (planned cruising speed)

You will then use the wind side of the flight computer to calculate the following:

- Heading
- Ground Speed

There are two commonly used methods for solving this type of calculation and I will refer to them as:

- Method A – Wind dot up method
- Method B – Wind dot down method

Either method will obtain the same results.

# Method A – Wind Dot Up

For this method I will use an E6-B flight computer. The process is the same for the CRP flight computers.

The graphical solution of a wind triangle is shown in *Figure 6* below. In the diagram, the centre line represents the true course of 30º. The wind is blowing from 100º at 30 kt. The ground speed (at the grommet) is at 150 kt and the True Air Speed at the wind dot is 163 kt. The heading is 10º right of centre, or 40º. The wind correction Angle is thus also 10º to the right.

All wind solutions can be graphically shown by a wind triangle similar to the one depicted in *Figure 6* above.

## Find Heading and Ground Speed Knowing TR, TAS and W/V

**EXAMPLE 20**

The planned Track (TR) = 340º

Reported wind = 035º at 30 kt

Planned True Air Speed = 140 kt

FIND:

- Ground Speed
- Wind Correction Angle
- True Heading

**Solution**

- As shown in
*Figure 7*above, set the wind direction of 35º at the True Index - Mark a wind speed dot at a value of 30 kt above the grommet.
- Rotate the centre disc to set 340º True Course at the True Index,
*Figure 8*. - Set the wind dot on the 140 kt air speed arc by adjusting the slide.
- The Ground Speed (120 kt) can be read under the grommet
- The Wind Correction Angle is 10º right or 350º

**EXAMPLE 21: **True Course = 360º. Wind Velocity = 040º@25 kt. TAS = 160. Find WCA, True Heading and Ground Speed.

**EXAMPLE 22: **True Course = 290º. Wind Velocity = 240º@30 kt. TAS = 130. Find WCA, True Heading and Ground Speed.

**EXAMPLE 23: **True Course = 050º. Wind Velocity = 190º@20 kt. TAS = 150. Find WCA, True Heading and Ground Speed.

**EXAMPLE 24: **True Course = 090º. Wind Velocity = 320º@30 kt. TAS = 145. Find WCA, True Heading and Ground Speed.

**EXAMPLE 25: **True Course = 120º. Wind Velocity = 120º@25 kt. TAS = 170. Find WCA, True Heading and Ground Speed.

**ANSWER 21: ** WCA = 6ºR True Heading = 006º Ground Speed = 140 kt

**ANSWER 22: **WCA = 10ºL True Heading = 280º Ground Speed = 109 kt

**ANSWER 23: **WCA = 5ºR True Heading = 055º Ground Speed = 165 kt

**ANSWER 24: **WCA = 9ºL True Heading = 081º Ground Speed = 163 kt

**ANSWER 25: **WCA = 0º True Heading = 120º Ground Speed = 145 kt

# Method B – Wind Dot Down

This is called the “Wind Dot Down” method for the following reasons:

- The centre dot is used as the starting point of the Wind Velocity vector
- The Wind Dot is marked beneath the centre dot (down from the centre dot)

Since the Wind Velocity blows the aircraft from its heading to its track and the heading vector ends where the Wind Velocity vector starts, the heading/TAS vector should be placed up the centre of the slide so that it ends at the centre dot.

## Find Heading and Ground Speed Knowing TR, TAS and W/V

This is the typical situation before flight.

Track is measured from the chart and wind velocity is obtained from meteorological information.

**EXAMPLE 26**

The planned Track = 295º

Reported wind = 320º at 25 kt

Planned True Air Speed = 97 kt

**Solution**

- Rotate the compass rose until the direction from which the wind is blowing is under the index, i.e. 320º.
- Mark the wind dot 25 kt down from the grommet,
*Figure 9*. - Move the slide until the True Air Speed (97 kt) is directly underneath the grommet,
*Figure 10*. - Turn the compass rose until the planned Track (295º) is aligned with the index.
- The Wind Dot will have moved over the 8º left drift line therefore the compass rose must be adjusted by rotating 8º anti-clockwise. 303º is now aligned under the index.
- The Wind Dot has moved again to the 6º drift line (not the original 8º). This means you must turn the compass rose 2º back (clockwise) to allow for this. 301º is now aligned with the index,
*Figure 11*. - Check the Wind Dot again and notice that there has been no further change in the drift angle.
- Read the Heading from the index (301º).
- The Ground Speed is read from under the Wind Dot (73 kt),
*Figure 12*.

### EASA Theoretical Knowledge Examinations

Updated on 1st December,2015

## Introduction

I am starting to get a lot of enquiries from both students and pilots in relation to what is required for the theoretical knowledge examinations for EASA helicopter licenses. This post will provide you with the new list of exams. These exams have already been launched in the UK and will take effect in Ireland from April 7th 2014. Anyone already training in Ireland under the old JAR system will have one year to complete their training from that date otherwise they will have to meet the requirements of the EASA system. Anyone in Ireland who has commenced their training after April 7th 2013 will already be training under the new EASA system.

Here is a list of the exams that must be passed for each helicopter license:

### Light Aircraft Pilot’s License (LAPL) Exams

The minimum age for obtaining an PPL(H) is 17 years old but training may commence at 15 years old. Minimum 16 years old before solo flight.

**Theoretical Knowledge Examination for the LAPL**

The examinations will be in written form and will comprise a total of 120 multiple-choice questions covering all the subjects.

For the subject ‘communication,’ practical classroom testing may be conducted.

- Air law,
- Human performance,
- Meteorology, and
- Communications;
- Principles of flight,
- Operational procedures,
- Flight performance and planning,
- Aircraft general knowledge, and
- Navigation.

**Privileges**

The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for helicopters are to act as PIC on single-engine helicopters with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2 000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board.

**Experience requirements and crediting**

Applicants for the LAPL(H) shall have completed 40 hours of flight instruction on helicopters. At least 35 hours of which shall be flown on the type of helicopter that is to be used for the skill test. The flight instruction shall include at least:

- 20 hours of dual flight instruction; and
- 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which one full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

**Extension of privileges to another type or variant of helicopter**

The privileges of an LAPL(H) shall be limited to the specific type and variant of helicopter in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed:

- 5 hours of flight instruction, including:
- 15 dual take-offs, approaches and landings;
- 15 supervised solo take-offs, approaches and landings;EN 25.11.2011 Official Journal of the European Union L 311/17

- a skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in the new type. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other type in the following subjects:
- Operational procedures,
- Flight performance and planning,
- Aircraft general knowledge.

Before the holder of an LAPL(H) can exercise the privileges of the licence in another variant of helicopter than the one used for the skill test, the pilot shall undertake differences or familiarisation training, as determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21. The differences training shall be entered in the pilot’s logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor.

**Recency requirements**

(a) Holders of an LAPL(H) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence on a specific type when they have completed on helicopters of that type in the last 12 months:

- at least 6 hours of flight time as PIC, including 6 take-offs, approaches and landings; and
- refresher training of at least 1 hour total flight time with an instructor.

(b) Holders of an LAPL(H) who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall:

- pass a proficiency check with an examiner on the specific type before they resume the exercise of the privileges of their licence; or
- perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a).

### Private Pilots License (PPL) Exams

The minimum age for obtaining an PPL(H) is 17 years old but training may commence at 15 years old. Minimum 16 years old before solo flight.

- Air law,
- Human performance,
- Meteorology, and
- Communications;
- Principles of flight,
- Operational procedures,
- Flight performance and planning,
- Aircraft general knowledge, and
- Navigation.

**Privileges**

The privileges of the holder of a PPL(H) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilot of helicopters engaged in non-commercial operations.

Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(H) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

- the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(H) or the PPL(H);
- the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;
- the ratings and certificates attached to these licences.

**Experience requirements and crediting**

(a) Applicants for a PPL(H) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction on helicopters, 5 of which may have been completed in an FNPT or FFS, including at least:

- 25 hours of dual flight instruction; and
- 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM), with full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure.
- 35 of the 45 hours of flight instruction have to be completed on the same type of helicopter as the one used for the skill test.EN 25.11.2011 Official Journal of the European Union L 311/23

(b) Specific requirements for an applicant holding an LAPL(H). Applicants for a PPL(H) holding an LAPL(H) shall complete a training course at an ATO. This training course shall include at least 5 hours of dual flight instruction time and at least 1 supervised solo cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM), with full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure.

(c) Applicants holding a pilot licence for another category of aircraft, with the exception of balloons, shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such aircraft up to a maximum of 6 hours. The amount of credit given shall in any case not include the requirements in (a)(2).

### Commercial Pilot’s License (CPL) Exams

The minimum age for obtaining an CPL(H) is 18 years old

- Air Law,
- Aircraft General Knowledge — Airframe/Systems/Powerplant,
- Aircraft General Knowledge — Instrumentation,
- Mass and Balance,
- Performance: Helicopters,
- Flight Planning and Monitoring,
- Human Performance,
- Meteorology,
- General Navigation,
- Radio Navigation,
- Operational Procedures,
- Principles of Flight: Helicopters,
- Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Communications.

**Privileges and conditions**

The privileges of the holder of a CPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to:

- exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL and a PPL;
- act as PIC or co-pilot of any aircraft engaged in operations other than commercial air transport;
- act as PIC in commercial air transport of any single-pilot aircraft subject to the restrictions specified in FCL.060 and in this Subpart;
- act as co-pilot in commercial air transport subject to the restrictions specified in FCL.060.

An applicant for the issue of a CPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type rating of the aircraft used in the skill test.

### Airline Transport Pilot’s License (ATPL) Exams

The minimum age for obtaining an ATPL(H) is 21 years old.

- Air Law,
- Aircraft General Knowledge — Airframe/Systems/Power plant,
- Aircraft General Knowledge — Instrumentation,
- Mass and Balance,
- Performance: Helicopters,
- Flight Planning and Monitoring,
- Human Performance,
- Meteorology,
- General Navigation,
- Radio Navigation,
- Operational Procedures,
- Principles of Flight: Helicopters,
- VFR Communications,
- IFR Communications.

**Privileges**

The privileges of the holder of an ATPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to:

- exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL, a PPL and a CPL;
- act as PIC of aircraft engaged in commercial air transport.

Applicants for the issue of an ATPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the type rating of the aircraft used in the skill test.

**Prerequisites, experience and crediting**

Applicants for an ATPL(H) shall:

(a) hold a CPL(H) and a multi-pilot helicopter type rating and have received instruction in MCC;EN L 311/30 Official Journal of the European Union 25.11.2011

(b) have completed as a pilot of helicopters a minimum of 1 000 hours of flight time including at least:

- 350 hours in multi-pilot helicopters;
- 250 hours as PIC; or

- 100 hours as PIC and 150 hours as PIC under supervision; or
- 250 hours as PIC under supervision in multi-pilot helicopters. In this case, the ATPL(H) privileges shall be limited to multi-pilot operations only, until 100 hours as PIC have been completed;

(3) 200 hours of cross-country flight time of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as PIC under supervision;

(4) 30 hours of instrument time of which not more than 10 hours may be instrument ground time; and

(5) 100 hours of night flight as PIC or as co-pilot.

Of the 1 000 hours, a maximum of 100 hours may have been completed in an Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD), of which not more than 25 hours may be completed in a Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer (FNPT).

(c) Flight time in aeroplanes shall be credited up to 50 % against the flight time requirements of paragraph (b).

(d) The experience required in (b) shall be completed before the skill test for the ATPL(H) is taken.

**NOTE**

Fixed wing pilots who have already passed the EASA CPL or ATPL theoretical knowledge exams will only be required to pass the relevant helicopter exams. I.e. to convert from CPL(A) to CPL(H) the following exams must be passed

- Performance: Helicopters
- Principles of Flight: Helicopters

### New EASA Regulations For PPL

Updated on 20th November,2015

## Introduction

Hi Everyone.

At long last I am back posting again. EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) is the new regulating authority for Europe. There is a big shake-up in European legislation in relation to flying. These changes are going to affect all of us. All of the changes must be in effect by April 2014.

At the moment I am busy updating our Operations Manual and Training Manual to reflect the changes. JAR-FCL will no longer be the official documentation for describing flying training. The new document will be EASA Part FCL. This is a difficult document to read but I have picked out the relevant parts for the Helicopter PPL.

But don’t get too scared by all of the changes that are coming because most of the changes do not affect helicopters. I will try to put as much information on here as I can think of, but forgive me if I miss anything and if you know of something that I miss in this post, let me know and I will add to it.

JAR-FCL Licenses are no longer being issued. All licenses issued now will be in accordance with EASA Part FCL. Anyone renewing a license or a rating will be issued with a new EASA Part FCL license.

For further information:

## PPL Course Pre-entry Requirements

- Minimum age is 15 years old before commencing training.
- Before being admitted for training, the Approved Training Organisation must ensure that all students have sufficient knowledge of Mathematics, Physics and English Language to facilitate an understanding of the theoretical knowledge instruction content of the course.
- Minimum age for solo flight is 16 years old.
- Students must obtain a Class 1 or Class 2 Medical certificate before they can go solo and I would recommend for any student to obtain this BEFORE starting training.

## Credit for Previous Experience

Anyone who holds a pilot license for aeroplanes, microlights (with fixed wings and moveable aerodynamic control surfaces acting in all 3 dimensions), microlight helicopters, gyroplanes, gliders, self-sustaining gliders or self-launching gliders may be credited with 10% of their total flight time as pilot in command in such aircraft up to a maximum of 6 hours towards the PPL(H).

## Flight Hours

The PPL(H) course consists of a MINIMUM of 45 hours flight time. Of this, 25 hours must be dual instruction time, 5 hours instrument dual instruction and 10 hours supervised solo time. The 10 hours supervised solo time must include 5 hours solo cross country, including a qualifying cross country flight of 100 nm (minimum), with landings at two aerodromes other than the point of departure.

The exercises are numbered as follows:

- Helicopter familiarisation and emergency procedures.
- Preparation for and action after flight.
- Air experience
- Effects of controls
- Power and attitude changes
- Straight and level flight
- Climbing
- Descending
- Turning
- Basic autorotations
- Hovering, Hover taxiing and spot turns, Hovering and taxiing emergencies
- Takeoff and landing
- Transitions from hover to climb and approach to hover
- Circuit approach and landing, Steep and limited power approaches and landings, Emergency procedures
- First solo
- Sideways and backwards hover manouevring
- Spot turns
- Hover (OGE) and vortex ring
- Simulated engine off landings
- Advanced autorotations
- Practice forced landings
- Steep turns
- Transitions
- Quick stops
- Navigation
- Advanced takeoffs, landings and transitions
- Sloping ground
- Limited power
- Confined area operations
- Basic instrument flight

*You may notice that the flying syllabus content is still the same as that listed for JAR-FCL2 but the lesson numbering has changed slightly.*

## Theoretical Knowledge Instruction

The theoretical knowledge subjects are:

- Air law and ATC procedures
- Principles of flight
- Aircraft general knowledge
- Meteorology
- Communications
- Navigation
- Operational procedures
- Flight performance and planning
- Human performance
- General flight safety

Students will have to do a minimum of 100 hours study in a classroom with a ground instructor. However, some Approved Training Organisations (ATO) may be approved to administer some of the 100 hours as a correspondence or distance learning course.

On completion of the theoretical knowledge course, students may attempt the IAA theoretical knowledge (multiple choice) exams.

## Already Started Training?

If you have already started training under the old JAR syllabus, there is no need to worry. You have until 8th April 2017 to complete your training otherwise you will have to do the extra theoretical knowledge and flight training necessary meet the EASA regulations.

## Converting Licenses from Non-European Countries

Foreign pilots with an equivalent license can convert their license to an EASA license. They should first contact an appropriate Approved Training Organisation (ATO) in the country relevant to where they want to train.

The ATO will do an assessment flight to determine what (if any) extra flight training is required. Foreign pilots will have to pass the written exams relevant to the type of licence they are converting. This will normally involve a certain amount of studying.

The course duration, number of lessons and training hours may be reduced from the published syllabus.

On completion of the written exams and flight training (if required), a foreign pilot will have to pass a License Skills Test (LST) before a license is issued.

## Credit for Military Service

Anyone who has had previous military flying experience in Europe, should apply to the Authority of the country in which they flew for credit towards their Part FCL flying.

## Conclusion

As you can see from above, the theoretical knowledge training for the PPL(H) has doubled to 100 hours. This is the major change to the syllabus. The flight syllabus is virtually identical but with some minor changes and the lesson numbers have changed. Any new students are automatically training for the EASA license and do not have to worry about anything. Existing students in Ireland who commenced their training before April 2013 have until 8th April 2017 to obtain their PPL otherwise things may start to get complicated.

I hope this helps to clarify some of your questions but feel free to drop me a line any time and if I can help you, I will.

### Robinson R44 Book

Updated on 24th September,2016

For all you R44 pilots out there, I have just written a new book – just for you. This book has 220 pages and is available in paperback or kindle.

Whether you are a student pilot studying to get a license or a qualified pilot learning to fly the Robinson R44 helicopter, this is the book you need. All of the helicopter systems are described in detail. With lots of pictures and diagrams to help you find every piece of equipment you need. This book is not a substitution for the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and should not be treated as such. However it will give you further information relating to the different sections of the flight manual and to explain the helicopter systems more clearly. This is essential for any pilot. Pilots need to understand the aircraft systems thoroughly and will regularly be tested on their knowledge during flight checks. Everything you need to know is in this book. The preflight checklists and start-up procedure are described in great detail. Photos and diagrams show the location of difficult to find parts. Extra information has been added wherever possible and there is an added section describing the flight maneuvers for the R44 helicopter. This book will not teach you how to fly the aircraft. However it will give you the necessary technical information to conduct your flight safely.

Preview Robinson R44 Book here.

Buy R44 Training Manual here.

For Kindle, Click Below.